: Be without fear in the face of your enemies. Be brave and upright that God may love thee. Speak the truth always, even if it leads to your death. Safeguard the helpless and do no wrong. That is your oath.
A record of historical inaccuracies
Author: kerstyevans from Cornwall
16 October 2003
To the Producers of “Boudica”
All my life I have had a special interest in ancient Celtic culture and lifestyle and a particular fascination for 1st century Britain. Therefore i have done a great lot of research over the years and read and watch anything I can find on the subject.
“Boudica” was probably the worst historical film ever made and could easily enter the Guinness Book of Records for the most historical inaccuracies, both in number and variety, ever seen on a screen. Apart from the swords (where were the shields?), chariots and some of the women’s hairstyles there was absolutely nothing right. i know it wasn’t meant to be a comedy, but there are some utterly hilarious lines in this film.
Female leaders were very common in ancient Celtic society. Boudica was probably the ruling queen of her tribe anyway, but the Romans only accepted a man in that position and made Boudica’s husband (who was much older than her and died of old age, not headaches!) the client king. There were a number of warrior women in 1st century Britain, though Boudica was the only one mentioned in history. Tacitus writes that to the Romans “the worst humiliation of losing the battle with Boudica, was being defeated by a woman!”
Tacitus, although on the other side, describes the British tribes and some of their customs and clothes in some detail. The producers of the film obviously haven’t read any of that, or the actors and actresses would at least have worn costumes and hairstyles more appropriate for the period. Women always wore dresses, even in battle! The minor warriors wore very little, while the aristocracy dressed up to impress for the occasion with lots of (mainly gold) jewellery and colourful clothes. The women wore two piece dresses – a wide shirt of linen or wool held together in the middle by an elborate belt, and a full skirt. When horse riding, the skirt was pulled through between the legs, still covering the knees. Cloaks made of wool or fur were worn in the winter, and woollen leggings resembling leg warmers. The men wore similar shirts and cloaks, and breeches which were wide at the top. In the film they wore 20th century jogging bottoms and some sort of cavemen’s furs reminding of the “Flintstones”.
The men’s 20th century hairstyles, I would think, would have looked out of place, even to anyone who never read anything about the 1st century. Almost all of them had their hair too short and where were their moustaches? Here, instead, some of the Romans have (very modern) beards, they would not have had in that period. Most Celtic men, especially those of any standing in society, had moustaches and a long mane of hair. Similar to some Native American tribes, 1st century Britons took pride in their long thick hair. Baldness was seen as a curse by the gods, so never in a million years would there have been a bald priest, and never would a druid or a priest of any sort have worn such rags! The Roman women are dressed up to the nines, although tacky and pantomine like. The Celtic women, and men, would have been dressed up elaborately.
Alright, we don’t know the names of Boudica’s daughters, though they wouldn’t have come out of Arthurian legends or even Wagner. They could have read some ancient Welsh legends and picked some simple names from those.
A Celtic king who didn’t want to go into battle would have been deposed, possibly murdered by his people for cowardice. There were no retired warriors anymore than bald priests in rags.
Claudius is hilarious. These scenes reminded me of a cross between “I Claudius” and the “Carry-on” films.
“Acts of Terrorism”? “Peace Process”? President Bush was here – did anyone recognise him?
Celtic funeral rites varied depending on the tribe. However, they never burned their dead. In fact, they went through a lot of trouble to rescue both the dead and the living from the flames, when any of their dwelling places was set on fire by an enemy. Any warrior of rank, especially a king, would have been buried with his sword, jewellery, food, sometimes other weapons or even a chariot. Their graves were usually in a wood and not marked on the outside. I won’t go into too much detail here, not even sure you’re still reading this. Death by fire was the ultimate punishment (only given to worst criminals), as there was a general belief that it would destroy the soul as well as the body and prevent the person from being reborn. I think there may have been a mix up with a Viking burial here, looking at the flames and water.
“Empire under new management!” another 20th/21st century phrase. “Read my lips!”
The Celtic aristocracy did not live in villages, but in hillside towns. They kept their homes and themselves clean, their hair, bodies and clothes washed regularly. There would not have been an army of the great unwashed, at least not before the battle. In fact, the Celts invented soap.
The Greeks visited Britain before the Romans, not to invade but just to trade, and there are some descriptions of their customs, looks and music. Music was distinctive and melodeous. Singing and playing instruments and dancing was a way of expressing high emotions. They had harps, though not those we know today, a variety of pipes, flutes and drums. We don’t know their tunes, though some might have been similar to early medieval or middle eastern type music rather than new age pseudo Native American dirges used in the film.
The “Excalibur” type magic doesn’t work here, only making the whole thing more ridiculous.
We are not sure what sort of music they had in the 1st century, but we know that music, poetry and storytelling was an important part of Celtic culture. Singing, dancing and playing instruments expressed their high emotions. They had harps, though not those we know today, a variety of pipes and flutes and drums. Middle Eastern or early medieval type tunes may have been similar, or at least would have fitted into a proper historical film, instead of some weird new age pseudo Native American wailings. I think I heard a didgeridoo once as well, but by then nothing could shock or surprise me anymore.
“What the hell is going on?” Nero said. What is a Classic battle? Then someone mentioned Anglesey! The island was called Ynis Mon, still known by that name in Wales today. The Romans always took a local name and latinised it, therefore called it Mona. The Angles occupied the island five centuries later and called it Anglesey! The producers wouldn’t even need to read about this, but could have asked any Welsh person the right name.
The Romans drank from metal tankards and pottery cups, not glasses, as far as I know. Well, certainly not Art Deco glasses.
i don’t think the Britons grew cabbages either, maybe mushrooms though I don’t know. Their diet consisted mainly of meat, cheese, bread, cakes and apples and berries, maybe some leaves were used as vegetable garnish. Herbs were used in medicine rather than cooking.
Well, I just had to get this off my chest, even if no-one reads it.
It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor defeat. – roosevelt, sorbonne april 23 1910
For eighty years a major not for profit, private currency has been operating in the heartland of Europe. In Zurich, almost next door to the Bank of International Settlements in Basel, there is the WIR, turning over the equivalent of almost 2 billion CHF per year.
WIR was founded by businessmen Werner Zimmerman and Paul Enz in 1934. It was a direct response to the Great Depression. They built on the legacy of Silvio Gesell, whose thinking also was the basis for the famous Wörgl Scrip and today’s German Regional Currencies, like the Chiemgauer.
Silvio Gesell is in fact the Patriarch of what I suggest should be called ‘German Economics’ or ‘Interest-Free Economics‘, the theoretical basis for the anti-usury movement. His analysis of Usury inspired both Gottfried Feder and Margrit Kennedy, two other leading lights of…
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to the below info given by Chief Rock Sino General, i Must add hemphearts eaten with salad EVERY morning..
Even during a flu epidemic, there’s no reason to fear becoming sick if you have the following home remedies on hand. Some act to protect you ahead of time before even getting sick, while others help you to recover after contracting the illness.
Colloidal Silver — Possibly one of the most important medical roles for colloidal silver is it’s ability to destroy pandemic flu viruses and deadly pathogens like methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA. Colloidal silver not only stops bacteria and the flu virus in its tracks after being infected, but protects against contagion. Take colloidal silver prophylactically as soon as you experience the first symptoms of illness to ward off a full-blown attack. Prophylactic treatment involves adults taking a teaspoon or two daily during flu season. Children can take one-half to one teaspoon daily depending on age and weight.?
· Mullein — Tea made from the herb Mullein relieves chest congestion from coughs, colds and the flu. It acts as an expectorant, loosening trapped mucous in airways and soothing painful sore throats. Mullein supports the immune system as well, during the flu and may be used prophylactically to prevent flu by drinking the tea daily during an epidemic.
· Gelsemium — Used to alleviate general flu symptoms, homeopathic Gelsemium is indicated for aches and pains, weakness, dizziness, shaking, occipital headache at the back of head and neck, drowsiness, paralysis, drooping eye lids.
· Belladonna — Homeopathic Belladonna is indicated when the onset of flu illness is sudden and very intense, high fever, red face, pulsating veins and throbbing headache often worse on the right side, stiff neck, hot, glassy-eyed, delirious, lack of thirst.
· Bryonia — Bone and muscle pain made worse from any motion indicates homeopathic Bryonia along with other symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, thirst for large quantities of cold water, painful cough, dryness of mucus membranes.
· Eupatorium perfoliatum — Symptoms look similar to Bryonia with intense body aches, high fever, cough and terrible chills running up the back. The difference is the person needing Eupatorium will be restless and change position frequently, whereas Bryonia prefers no movement at all.
first, always do your best to look the coward, the weakling, the fool. silence is a warrior’s best armour, the saying goes. hard looks and hard words have never won a a battle yet, but they’ve lost a few.
second, never take an enemy lightly, however much the dullard he seems. treat every man like he’s twice as clever, twice as strong, twice as fast as you are, and you’ll only be pleasantly surprised. respect costs you nothing, and nothing gets a man killed quicker than confidence.
third, watch your opponent as close as you can, and listen to opinions if you’re given them, but once you’ve got your plan in mind, you fix on it and let nothing sway you. time comes to act, you strike with no backward glances. delay is the parent of disaster, my father used to tell me, and believe me, i’ve seen some disasters.
– logen, the bloody nine